The Section in the 2014 Farm Bill specific to Industrialized Hemp
As interest grows in industrial hemp, thanks in large part to some U.S. states pushing for locally grown hemp, industry advocates are warning
interested manufacturers not to get certain hemp products confused with others. In particular, the Hemp Industries Association (HIA; Summerland,
CA) is advising against the marketing of hemp cannabidiol (CBD) extracts as ‘hemp oil.’
Hemp oil has enjoyed a long history of use for culinary applications and even cosmetic ones, such as the production of lotions, soaps, and balms.
The ingredient is derived from the crushing of hemp seeds. Hemp CBD, on the other hand, is a whole different animal. While also available in oil
format, the HIA says that hemp CBD extracts should not be confused with the former ingredient, which consumers around the world already know
commonly as ‘hemp oil.’
CBD is one of dozens of cannabinoids found in both hemp and its close relative marijuana. The compound is similar in chemical structure to
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), for which there exists the medicinal marijuana market, but it does not have THC’s psychotropic effects. A health
supplement market is, thus, opening up for CBD-rich extracts and their potential health benefits.
“While CBD has thus far skirted control by the FDA, it holds promise for several neuropsychiatric disorders,” says Wesley Ryan, MD, a board-eligible
psychiatrist in Los Angeles. “Studies have demonstrated successful treatment of intractable epilepsy, as well as short-term treatment of psychotic
disorders. Current studies are largely preliminary, but these initial favorable results beg further investigation, especially given the better safety
profile of CBD over both THC and many of the accepted first-line prescription drug treatments.”
The differences between ‘hemp oil’ and CBD oil are quite clear. While hemp oil is obtained from crushed hemp seeds, CBD-rich oil extracts are best
obtained from hemp flowers, leaves, and stalks. The HIA notes that hemp seeds typically contain less than 25 parts per million of CBD, whereas
these other parts of the hemp plant may be rife with as much as 150,000 parts per million of CBD. Fortunately, both CBD oil and conventional
hemp oil can be made without a real presence of THC. Manufacturers can go on safely making hemp oil, and they can also venture into CBD oil, an
ingredient for which there is great market potential. The HIA, however, warns that marketing of CBD extracts is still a “legal gray area” under
federal law, and manufacturers should be careful in making any health claims.
So far, 39 U.S. states have introduced pro-hemp legislation of which 22 have already passed theirs.
[UPDATE: Existing federal regulations for industrial hemp production do not address CBD content in finished hemp oil. A distinction is made,
however, for a THC threshold under 0.3%. Both CBD-rich and CBD-poor hemp oils can be procured with very little THC, so either hemp oil from
seeds should be called 'hemp seed oil' or CBD-rich oil from elsewhere in the plant should be called 'CBD oil.' Something should be done to clarify
the two from each other.
Hemp Oil, imported HEMP oil into the United States is Legal. The CBD is in the HEMP oil.
CBD Health and Wellness = Hemp Oil +CBD
Why Industrial Hemp?
Notoriety obscures the history and value of hemp. Hemp has a long history in America, from the first plantings in Jamestown, where growing hemp was mandatory, to the hemp sails of 19th-century clipper ships and the hemp canvas covers of pioneer wagons, to World War II's massive "Hemp for Victory" program. Hemp is a major part of humanity's agricultural and commercial heritage, having been used extensively for millennia in cultures around the world.
Hemp seed was known long ago for its healthy protein and rich oil. The stalk's outer fiber was used for clothing, canvas, and rope, and textile rags were recycled into paper pulp. The Declaration of Independence was drafted on hemp paper, and the finest Bibles are still printed on hemp-based paper. The woody core fiber of hemp stalks was used for construction and fuel. In the early 20th century, hemp-derived cellulose was promoted as an affordable and renewable raw material for plastics; Henry Ford even built a prototype car from biocomposite materials, using agricultural fiber such as hemp.
Beginning with the passage of the "Marihuana Tax Act" of 1937 and continuing after the World War II "Hemp for Victory" program, misplaced fears that industrial hemp is marijuana and harassment by law enforcement discouraged farmers from growing hemp. The last crop was grown in Wisconsin in 1958, and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970 formally prohibited cultivation.
Today, driven by entrepreneurial spirit and the desire to build a new industry for a new age, hemp has reemerged. A diverse but increasingly unified and politically influential group of interests supports the commercial growing of hemp, including farmers, businesses, nutritionists, activists, and green consumers.
Hemp is not a panacea for the world's social, economic, and environmental woes — no single crop can do that. But with focused and sustained research and development, hemp could spur dramatic change. Renewable, fast-growing hemp could allow major industries to reduce their dependence on nonrenewable, fast-disappearing resources and move toward sustainable production.
Today's hemp-based fabrics are nothing like 18th-century canvas sailcloth (canvas derives from the Latin cannabis). Hemp fiber, blended with everything from Tencel to organic cotton, can be used to create textiles as different as terrycloth, flannel, and luxurious satin brocades. Hemp fiber offers greater durability and breathability than cotton, which accounts for 25 percent of the pesticides sprayed on the world's crops. Hemp-based textile products on the market include apparel and accessories such as T-shirts, pants, dresses, baby clothes, bathrobes, and shoes; housewares such as blankets, shower curtains, and rugs; and sundries such as hammocks and pet supplies.
Technical Hemp Fiber and Core Products
The most successful emerging industrial use of hemp fiber is in the automobile industry. "Biocomposites" of nonwoven hemp matting and polypropylene or epoxy are pressed into parts such as door panels and luggage racks, replacing heavier and less safe fiberglass composites. European hemp fiber made into biocomposites by Flexform in Indiana has been used in more than a million cars and trucks in North America. Automotive applications alone are expected to push European hemp cultivation to over 100,000 acres by 2010. Emerging technology for injection molding of natural fibers is expected to accelerate growth of this sector. Hemp fiber is also used for insulation and horticultural growth mats, and hemp core is used in animal bedding, mortars, and horticultural mulch.
The low impact of the farming and processing of hemp stalks and the high strength, length and yield of the bast fibers make hemp, a traditional source of high-strength specialty paper, a favorite in today's ecologically aware market. Pulp made from hemp's bast fiber is superior to short-fiber wood, and is an ideal additive to strengthen recycled post-consumer waste (PCW) pulp, thus expanding PCW's use. Tough and durable, hemp content paper can be finished to a smooth-surfaced sheet with as good as or better print qualities than virgin wood-based paper. The markets for hemp content paper are growing, including not only high-quality PCW printer paper, but also ecological product packaging, brochures and promotional materials for progressive businesses.
Ethanol — ethyl alcohol, currently produced by fermenting cornstarch from kernels — is gradually replacing toxic Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) in the United States as a high-octane, pollution-reducing gasoline additive. As a source for ethanol, corn kernels are economically viable only because of high federal subsidies. In the next two to five years, the energy-efficient production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass such as wheat and rice straw, hemp, flax, and corn stalks will become commercially viable. This process also generates much lower overall emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2, and because most automobile engines can run on 15:85 ethanol:gasoline blends without modification, ethanol will help nations worldwide meet their greenhouse gas reduction goals. Hemp grown for both seed and biomass has a stalk yield of up to 3.5 tons per acre, which would make it an economical source of cellulose for ethanol production. Farmers in the Midwest could welcome hemp as a pofitable addition to their marginally profitable soybean and corn rotations.
Increasingly found on store shelves, shelled hemp seeds ("hemp nuts") and cold-pressed oil have exceptional nutritional benefits and rich flavor. They are used in salad dressings, nutrition bars, flour, breads, cookies, granola, meatless burgers, nut butter, protein powders, chips, pasta, coffee blends and frozen desserts. Virtually all hemp nut and oil in U.S. foods are imported from Canada.
An impressive 33 percent of the hemp nut is high-quality protein, providing all essential amino acids in a reasonable balance, making it an attractive component of a meat-free diet. Hemp also contains significant amounts of the vitamin E complex and trace minerals such as magnesium, iron, and manganese.
But hemp seeds are valued primarily for the exceptional fatty acid composition of their oil, which makes up 30 percent of the whole seed and 44 percent of the nut. Studies link many common ailments to an imbalance and deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the typical Western diet: too much omega-6 and not enough omega-3. Consuming sufficient omega-3 in the right EFA ratio has impressive benefits, including: reducing cholesterol, reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and sudden cardiac death, reducing the need for insulin among diabetics, decreasing the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, promoting mood improvement in bipolar disorders, and optimizing development in infants.
Hemp oil contains the most EFAs of any nut or seed oil, with the omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs occurring in the nutritionally optimal 1:3 ratio. As a bonus it offers the higher-potency omega derivatives GLA and SDA. Fish and fish oils are recommended because they provide the omega-3 derivatives SDA, DHA, and EPA. But concern over the contamination of fish by mercury and other environmental toxins has led the FDA to warn pregnant women and nursing mothers to restrict their fish intake. Hemp's omega profile means that using hemp nut and oil as a staple food is a good alternative to fish: One tablespoon of hemp oil in a shake, salad, soup, or sauce provides 3 grams of omega-3, more than the 2 grams per day recommended by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
Virtually all common vegetable oils, such as soy, corn, sunflower, safflower and olive oil offer a much less desirable omega balance, i.e., not enough omega-3. Even walnuts, touted in recent media due to the FDA's qualified endorsement of their omega-3 health benefits, contain significantly less omega-3 and in a lower ratio to omega-6 than hemp seed. Of the commodity vegetable oils, only flax seed contains more omega-3, but flax does not have hemp's optimal EFA balance. Because it is more easily digestible with a longer shelf life and a nutty natural flavor, hemp nut also offers a greater range of culinary options than flax seeds.
Hemp Body Care Products
Hemp oil's high and balanced EFA content also makes it an ideal ingredient in body care products. The EFAs soothe and restore skin in salves and creams and give excellent emolliency and smooth after-feel to lotions, lip balms, conditioners, shampoos, soaps, shaving products, and massage oils. Recent Canadian research shows that hemp oil has potential as a broad-spectrum ultraviolet skin protector.
What Can I Do?
Here are two simple ways to help hemp blossom in the marketplace: Buy hemp! Vote hemp!
Activists are working to shift federal regulation of industrial hemp back to the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and out of the hands of the DEA. Donations to support this effort can be made online at the Web site of Vote Hemp, the industry's lobbying group, where you can also find sample letters and easy ways to contact elected officials; see our What Can I Do? page.
Hemp Production in the United States Ground ZERO is Kentucky
In 1916, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) chief scientists Jason L. Merrill and Lyster H. Dewey created a paper, USDA Bulletin No. 404 "Hemp Hurds as Paper-Making Material", in which they concluded that paper from the woody inner portion of the hemp stem broken into pieces, so called hemp hurds, was "favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood".
Dewey and Merrill believed that hemp hurds were a suitable source for paper production. However, later research does not confirm this. The concentration of cellulose in hemp hurds is only between 32% and 38% (not 77%, a number often repeated by Jack Herer and others on the Internet). Manufacture of paper with hemp as a raw material has shown that hemp lacks the qualities needed to become a major competitor to the traditional paper industry, which still uses wood or waste paper as raw material. In 2003, 95% of the hemp hurds in the EU were used for animal bedding, almost 5% were used as building material. The DuPont Company and many industrial historians dispute a link between nylon and hemp. They argue that the purpose of developing the nylon was to produce a fiber that could compete with silk and rayon.
Shortly after the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act went into effect on October 1, 1937, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Denver City police arrested Moses Baca for possession and Samuel Caldwellfor dealing. Baca and Caldwell's arrest made them the first marijuana convictions under U.S. federal law for not paying the marijuana tax. Judge Foster Symes sentenced Baca to 18 months and Caldwell to four years in Leavenworth Penitentiary for violating the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act